Lifestyle Diseases



Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life. These are commonly caused by alcohol, drug and smoking abuse as well as lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating. Diseases that impact on our lifestyle are heart disease, stroke, obesity and type II diabetes.The diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer. They can include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, stroke, depression, and obesity.


             Promoting good health,


"The world has many barriers to good health. To overcome them, governments, communities and individuals must do more to promote healthy practices. Health promotion is about enabling and empowering individuals, communities and societies to take charge of their own health and quality of life". 


A Short Non Communicable Diseases List with Analysis:-
             Risk Factors of NCD: Some risk factors of non-communicable diseases include the environment, lifestyle or background such as the genetics, age, exposure to air pollution or gender of a person. Some behaviors such as a lack of physical activity, poor diet or smoking which could lead to obesity or hypertension can also increase the risk of developing some non-communicable diseases. Many of these are considered preventable because the condition can be improved by removing the at-risk behavior.

1. Diabetes
             Diabetes limits the body’s ability to process glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes which is present from birth causes the pancreas ,which manufacture insulin,to be destroyed by the immune system, causing glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is developed over time causing the cells to resist the effects of insulin, causing unhealthy levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Risk factor of Type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese.

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2. Hypertension
            This is caused when an individual consistently has a blood pressure reading over 140/90. This can be caused by diabetes, smoking, excessive salt intake, obesity or kidney disease.

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            Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight.Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

            Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness.The view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported>>On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

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                                        Weight-loss basics.


4. Osteoporosis
            This condition causes a decrease in bone mass which can make the bones brittle and at higher risk for damage. Around 80 percent of people who have osteoporosis are women. Additional factors which increase the risk of this disease are the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inactivity, low sex hormone levels or smoking.


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5. Heart Disease
             This is a very broad category of diseases which impact the circulatory system or heart. This can include congenital heart disease, rhythm irregularities, heart failure, heart attack, unstable angina, mitral valve prolapse, aortic regurgitation, cardiogenic shock or endocarditis.


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6. Lung Cancer
             Lung cancer causes malignant cell growth in the lung tissue, often as a result of exposure to pollutants or the use of tobacco products. As many as 90 percent of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking with non-smokers having a very small risk of this disease.

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7. Malnutrition.

             Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition.Malnutrition is often used specifically to refer to undernutrition where there is not enough calories, protein, or micronutrients.If undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development


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8. Environmental

            NCDs include many environmental diseases covering a broad category of avoidable and unavoidable human health conditions caused by external factors, such as sunlight, nutrition, pollution, and lifestyle choices. The diseases of affluence are non-infectious diseases with environmental causes. Examples include:

  • Many types of cardiovascular disease (CVD)

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by smoking tobacco

  • Diabete type 2

  • Lower back pain caused by too little exercise

  • Malnutrition caused by too little food, or eating the wrong kinds of food (e.g. scurvy from lack of Vitamin C)

  • Skin cancer caused by radiation from the sun.

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  • 9.Oral/Dental Diseases

            High relative risk of oral disease relates to socio-cultural determinants such as poor living conditions; low education; lack of traditions, beliefs and culture in support of oral health. Communities and countries with inappropriate exposure to fluorides imply higher risk of dental caries and settings with poor access to safe water or sanitary facilities are environmental risk factors to oral health as well as general health. Moreover, control of oral disease depends on availability and accessibility of oral health systems but reduction of risks to disease is only possible if services are oriented towards primary health care and prevention.

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                            : "Oral Health & Disease Prevention"