Body Weight Solutions.

 

Nutrition .

               Weight management is a long-term approach to a healthy lifestyle. It includes a balance of healthy eating and physical exercise to equate energy expenditure and energy intake. Developing healthy eating habits while using tips that will keep us fuller longer can be useful tools in weight management. Knowing what your body needs is important to weight management and can control overconsumption and underconsumption of food.

               Weight management does not include fad diets that promote quick, temporary weight loss. It focuses on the long-term results that are achieved through slow weight loss, followed by retention of an ideal body weight for age, sex and height.

Rising obesity rates are a major concern .Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.Managing one’s weight is one factor in preventing such chronic diseases.

 

Methods .

 

Increase protein intake, 

             The satiating property of dietary protein is influenced by the type of protein consumption. Studies have shown that protein intake at breakfast has a greater satiety effect than later meal times There are several explanations as to why this is the case. Firstly, protein has a greater thermogenic effect than carbohydrates and fat, which enables the body to burn more calories.Secondly, a high protein breakfast appears to slow gastric emptying, which attributes to the fact that protein appears to be the most satiating macronutrient. Finally, a high protein breakfast increases the activity of glucagon, which activates the pathways for glucose synthesis. One study showed that fat loss was approximately twice as much in the high-protein diet group than the moderate-protein diet group in overweight and obese individuals.

Plate size 

             Using smaller plates helps to consume smaller portion sizes and this leads to the consumption of fewer calories. Studies have shown that portion size influences energy intake. People who are presented with larger portions do not report to have a higher level of satiety, which suggests that hunger and satiety signals are ignored when a large portion of food is placed in front of them. In particular, one study showed that participants consumed 31% less calories with the small portion sized of a 6-inch submarine sandwich compared with the large portion size of a 12-inch submarine sandwich. Increased portion sizes have occurred simultaneously with the increase in obesity rates; hence, large portion sizes can be one of the factors contributing to the current increase in body weight of the U

 

 soup

             Soups have a significant satiety effect and studies have demonstrated that compared to solid foods, soup ingestion decrease the amount of energy intake. Compared to having no soup, it has been shown that eating soup reduces total energy intake of a meal. When soup is consumed before a meal, a decrease of 20% of energy is consumed in the meal.

 

 low calorie foods

           A moderate decrease in caloric intake will lead to a slow weight loss, which may be more beneficial for long term weight management. For example, choosing a black coffee instead of a full fat latte will save calories that will add up in the long run. Low fat meats reduce the total amount of calories and cholesterol consumed. 

 

 more dairy 

           Studies have shown that a diet high in dairy decreases total body fat. This occurs because a high amount of dietary calcium increases the amount of energy and fat excreted from the body. Studies have shown that saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats all have a higher excretion rate with a high calcium intake. In these studies, a high calcium intake is considered 2300 mg and a low calcium intake is considered 700 mg. A possible explanation to this phenomenon is that high intakes of calcium cause calcium soap formation and/ or binding of bile acids in the intestine. Other studies specifically show that dairy sources of calcium demonstrate greater weight loss than supplemental calcium intake. This may be due to the other bioactive components present in milk, which may aid in metabolic efficiency and fat loss.[15]

Incorporate more vegetables into your meals

 

Vegetables 

        Fruits and vegetables have been shown to increase satiety and decrease hunger. These foods have a low energy density, which is mainly due to the high water content and partly due to the fiber content. The reduction of energy density has been shown to enhance satiety. The water adds weight, without adding calories and the fiber slows gastric emptying. Both of these factors contribute to the satiating effect of vegetables and fruits. Studies have also shown that fiber decreases hunger and also decreases total energy intake.

 

Fiber

           Dietary Fiber has been suggested to aid weight management by inducing satiety, decreasing absorption of macronutrientsand promoting secretion of gut hormones. Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin, which are a structural component in plants.Fiber recommendations range from 10 – 13 grams/1000 calories, with slightly higher recommendations for men.

           Due to the high volume or water content of fiber-rich foods, fiber displaces available calories and nutrients from the diet.Consumption of viscous fibers delays gastric emptying, which may cause an extended feeling of fullness. Satiety is also induced by increasing chewing, which limits food intake by promoting the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, resulting in an expansion of the stomach. In addition, hormone secretion is affected during fiber ingestion.

           Insulin response is reduced and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the small intestine is increased. Insulin regulates blood glucose levels while CCK adjusts gastric emptying, pancreatic secretion and gall bladder contraction. There is direct correlation between CCK and satiety after foods of different fiber contents are consumed. Fiber may have the added benefit of helping consumers decrease food intake throughout the day. However, results of trials examining this possibility have been conflicting. In general, large intakes of dietary fiber at breakfast are associated with less food intake at a lunch.

 

Resistant Starch

           Resistant starch is a type of non-digestible, fermentable fiber that is resistant to amylase digestion in the small intestine, and is broken down to short-chain fatty acids by microflora in the large intestine. It is commonly found in cooked and cooled potatoes, green bananas, beans and legumes. Resistant starch dilutes energy density of food intake, has a bulking effect similar to non-fermentable fiber, and increases the expression of PYY and GLP-1 in the gut The increase in gut hormones can affect long-term energy balance by affecting neuronal pathways in the brain as well as improved overall health of theintestines. Based on developing research, consumption of resistant starch can be an effective means of weight management.

 

Capsaicin

           Clinical research on capsaicin has showed that consumption of the spice during breakfast can increase energy expenditure by 23% immediately after meal ingestion. Capsaicin, also known as hot pepper, is a primary ingredient in chilli peppers and red hot peppers. Hot peppers have been reported to induce thermogenesis at the cellular level.

As well, capsaicin induces satiety as a result of oral and gastro-intestinal contribution. Lower energy and fat intake were observed under short-term conditions; however, the effect of the spice was reduced over prolonged exposure. Increased satiety was observed when oral contribution of capsaicin was measured in addition to the gastro-intestinal exposure, indicating the sensory effect of hot peppers plays a significant role.

 

Caffeine

           Caffeine and black coffee have been associated with increased energy expenditure and subsequent weight loss.Caffeine belongs to a class of compounds called methylxanthines, and is present in coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate and some cola drinks. Caffeine induces a thermogenic effect in the body by increasing Sympathetic Nervous System activity, which is an important regulator of energy expenditure.

 

Green Tea

           Green tea has been associated with decreasing blood glucose, inhibiting hepatic and body fat accumulation, and stimulating thermogenesis due to the catechins that are present. Catechins are polyphenols that are a major component of green tea extract. Green tea has also been shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans, independent of the caffeine content. In a human study conducted, 690 mg of catechins daily for 12 weeks reduced body fat, suggesting that green tea might be useful in the prevention of chronic disease, particularly obesity. Moreover, catechins in the brain play a major role insatiety.,

 

 

Exercises.

         To transform your body, to get fit, to be healthy and to feel great you gotta exercise. Just like the air you breathe, your body needs physical exercise. And it needs exercise in a way that is so far-reaching that scientists are only just starting to unravel some of the amazing effects exercise has on our bodies. Did you know, that exercise can actually reprogram your DNA? And while you may think that by not doing exercise you’re not doing any harm, lack of exercise itself can alter your DNA – but unfavourably!

         Putting aside all the complicated, scientific reasons to exercise, exercise offers benefits that dieting alone just can’t. Exercise allows you to boost your metabolism and turn your body into a fat blasting furnace. Exercise builds muscle in the places you want, improves body shape and gives you a firm, toned body. Dieting, on the other hand, doesn’t promise a firm body – you can lose weight dieting and still be jiggly! And of course, in conjunction with diet, exercise speeds up the whole weight loss process, and who doesn’t want that?!!!